Sports Psychology

A PowerBar-Sponsored Talk

by Adam Tenforde


    I. Basic Techniques of Sports Psychology  

  1. Goal setting
    1. Definition: “attaining a specific standard of proficiency on a task, usually within a specified time limit” (Williams, 2001)
    2. Types of goals
      1. Outcome goals, performance goals, and process goals
    3. Length of goal-setting interventions
      1. short-term, moderate, long-term
    4. Benefits of goal setting: focus, strategy, provides a map to reach an outcome
  1. Imagery
    1. Definition: using all the senses to re-create an experience in the mind
    2. Method for performing imagery
      1. re-create experience, use senses, and perform in an isolated environment
    3. Benefits: develop skills to re-create ideal environment to execute skill
  1. Relaxation/Activation
    1. Definition: controlling the overall energy level of an individual
    2. Physiology of activation
      1. nervous system, endocrine system
    3. Relaxation techniques
      1. mind-to-muscle: meditation and visualization to relax muscle groups
      2. muscle-to-mind: breathing, progressive relaxation
    4. Activation techniques
      1. Increased breathing, imagery, mind-controls
    5. Benefits: get to the ‘right’ level of readiness to perform at your best
  1. Cognitive Techniques
    1. Definition: using the mind to prepare for performance
    2. Methods: self-talk and self-efficacy
    3. Benefits: prepare the mind to operate at highest level

    II. Application of Sports Psychology

    1. Plan of attack: define a goal -> get your ‘team’ together (parents, teachers, coaches etc) -> set your routine -> periodic evaluation as perform task -> use feedback to modify approach -> repeat task
    1. Applications of sports psychology
      1. Athletic-competition
        1. Pre-performance routines, during competition, and evaluation of performance
      2. Test-taking
        1. Pre-performance routines, during competition, and after-event assessment
      3. Setting a long-term goal
        1. Year-long outlook and time management plan

Acknowledgements: Dr. Glenn Brassington (Stanford University), Jean Williams Applied Sport Psychology: Personal Growth to Peak Performance (2001)



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